Q-Series Infant to Child

Available Models:

  • Humanetics
    • 047-0000 - Q0 Dummy
    • 036-0000 - Q1 Dummy
    • 048-0000 - Q1.5 Dummy
    • 020-0001 - Q3 Dummy
    • 020-0100 - Q3s Dummy
    • 033-0001-B -Q6 Dummy
    • 010-0000 - Q10 Dummy


In the late 1970's and early 1980's, TNO and others developed the P-dummies, a series of child dummies that covers almost the complete child population up to 10 years. The P-series dummies are still test tools for the European regulation UN-ECE Regulation 44 and are also adopted by many other standards. In 1993 the International Child Dummy Working Group started with the development of the Q-series of child dummies as successor to the P-series.

The Q differs considerably from the P-dummies. It is not only advanced in terms of its biomechanical and anthropometric characteristics, it is also developed to be used in both front and side impact testing, making it the first "multi-directional" (child) dummy. The instrumentation is interchangeable within the dummy and between other members of the Q-series.

The development of the Q3 dummy was partly financed by CREST, a European research program for improved child safety in cars. Q-dummies were developed with TNO in CREST and CHILD EC research projects in the following order:Q3 (1998) Q6 (1999), Q1 (2000), Q0, and Q1.5 (2003). Q10 was developed last (2010) in an EC project called EPOCh (Enabling Protection of Older Children).

After the development of Q1.5, all Q dummies were extensively validated and evaluated in test programs which led to design improvements. In April 2004, the designs were frozen and nearly all Q-dummies previously in the field were updated in accordance with the frozen specification.

Since 2008, the integral renewal of the child safety regulations of UN-ECE R44 has been under development by the GRSP Informal Group on Child Restraints Systems. New UN-ECE Regulation R129 using Q dummies is meant to replace Regulation R44 using P dummies. However, it is yet to be decided if R44 remains in place with modifications or if R129 will replace the R44 after a phase out period. In case R44 remains in place the CRS manufacturer can choose whether to follow the R44 or the R129.
Since January 2013 Regulation 129 Phase I, dealing with Integral CRS (Child Restraints that have belt system in the seat), specifies the use of the Q0, Q1, Q1.5, Q3 and Q6. In Phase II of Regulation 129, dealing with Non-Integral CRS (Child restraints that use the adult belt to restraint the child), the use of the Q3, Q6 and Q10 is specified and will become effective June 2017. For R44 it was decided that the Q0 can be used next to the P0. This will be effective per a date to be defined from the GRSP meeting.
Moreover, Euro NCAP has implemented the Q1.5 and Q3 in their January 2013 protocol and began using the Q6 and Q10 in January 2016, replacing the smaller dummies. Meanwhile most NCAP programs world-wide use Q dummies in their assessment. These are either Q1.5 + Q3 (e.g. Latin and Asean NCAP) or Q6 and Q10 (e.g Korean and Euro NCAP). To support these regulatory and consumer test program application the EEVC (European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee) Working group 12 has prepared a comprehensive report with a summary of the Q dummies development and evaluation and recommendation on the use of these dummies and their injury assessment capabilities.


Links to download the EEVC WG12 reports from the EEVC website:

Simulation Models

Humanetics offers highly detailed and fully validated Finite Element Models of its dummies in the codes LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH, ABAQUS and RADIOSS, along with FE modeling consultancy services.

Q Dummy Construction

Head and Neck

The Q dummies have rigid plastic skulls with soft durable skin to meet biofidelity requirements. Skulls have an inner cavity to house accelerometers, rotational sensors and DAS. The neck consists of rubber segments between metal plates to allow realistic flexion, extension and lateral flexion rotational behavior. Q1, Q1.5, Q3 and Q6 also allow limited elongation. A six channel load cell can be fitted to the top of the neck of all Q-dummies and a lower neck load cell can be fitted on Q3, Q6 and Q10.


The thorax is a single ribcage structure, mounted onto a rigid thoracic spine box. The shape of the ribcage is derived from anthropometry data and analyses of children’s X-rays.


The shoulder incorporates a ball and socket joint to simulate the humerus-scapula joint with a scapula distributing load at the back. An anatomically shaped clavicle is connected to the sternum area of the ribcage by a flexible coupling and a rubber column is fitted between the shoulder and the thoracic spine.

Abdomen and Lumbar Spine

The abdomen is designed as a one-piece deformable element, allowing considerable deformation, which takes place as a result of complete dummy bending and contact loading. The lumbar spine is represented by a flexible rubber column.


A lot of attention has been paid to designing anatomically shaped bony parts of the pelvis, using anthropometry data and children’s X-rays. The pelvis bone is a rigid element covered with a flexible flesh-skin representation. The Q10 pelvis is a more detailed design having a construction like WorldSID for enhanced side impact biofidelity and additional sensors. All Q-dummies have a sit-standing pelvis design with ball and socket hip joints allowing for good seating position.

Legs and Arms

The arms and legs are durable with a flesh like feel. There are pin joints at the knees and elbows. There are click stops in the Q1, Q1.5, Q3 and Q6 elbows for positioning. Shoulders have friction adjustment for positioning. The hips and lower legs are frictionless joints which do not need pre-test adjustment. Friction can be applied to hips, elbows and knees on the Q10 for a 1 g setting.


The Q-dummies are provided with a soft jacket, not simulating an anatomical structure but representing the combination of skin and clothing to provide a repeatable outer interface.


Head certification requires front and side impact drop tests on a drop table. Neck and lumbar spine impact bending certifications are performed on a part 572 neck pendulum with a head form. A full body impactor (probe) is required to certify the thorax front and side. A static compression test is required for abdomen certification. Detailed Q-dummy certification requirements are described at length in the respective user's manuals.


Q10Q10 Update

Two prototypes were manufactured and tested in the Q10 EPOCh project and some details were highlighted regarding handling and durability for consideration in the production version, SBL B (Standard Build Level B). Additional design improvements were made based on feedback from testing conducted around the world. Design changes were introduced into the production version where possible to improve the dummy. SBL B dummies started delivery in March 2013.
Please visit www.epochfp7.org for additional information!