Rear Impact

Rear Impact Dummies:

Rear Impact dummies were developed to expand vehicle testing capability into the realm of relatively low speed impacts causing whiplash injuries. The effects of these are sometimes hard to quantify but they are very debilitating for the person undergoing them.

Why we test with Rear Impact Dummies

Rear impact dummies have been used to test for the effects of low speed impacts to the rear of the vehicle. These impacts can cause serious injury to the neck especially in the soft tissue. Tests with these dummies can be used to determine the effectiveness of headrests on the seats in preventing excess motion of the head and neck.

History of Rear Impact Dummies

The RID-II and the RID-3D were developed in the early part of the 2000’s. They are based upon a THOR (Hybrid IV) and have a neck which allows the head to move in forward translation followed by rotation on the neck. This follows the same path indicated by high speed photography of a rear impact incident. The dummies can be hit in the forward-rear direction as well as off axis up to approximately 30 degrees. They also give responses to frontal impact loads.
 
The BioRID was developed at the same time by Chalmers University in Gothenberg, Sweden. This dummy features a spinal column having separate linked vertebrae corresponding to the human skeleton. It is used for the evaluation of body motion in rear impacts.

Rear Impact Dummies in the US Code of Federal Regulations

The dummies are in the process of being evaluated by the various user groups and have not been incorporated into the Federal Code.

Future Rear Impact Dummies

The RID-IIID may be duplicated in computer model forms for virtual vehicle development.

Rear Impact Dummy Review

The rear impact dummy fulfills an important function in that it tests for heretofore subtle injuries in low speed rear impacts. These can be very debilitating to the person undergoing them and the dummies give a method of quantifying these effects.