Q-Series Child Dummies
- Q-Dummy Material Equivalency Report (Login Required)
- Q0 User Manual (Login Required)
- Q1 User Manual (Login Required)
- Q1.5 User Manual (Login Required)
- Q3 User Manual (Login Required)
- Q3s User Manual (Login Required)
- Q6 User Manual (Login Required)
- Q10 User Manual (Login Required)
- Q-Series - Service Bulletin (Login Required)
- Q6 Neck Assembly - Service Bulletin (Login Required)
- 047-0000 - Q0 Dummy
- 036-0000 - Q1 Dummy
- 048-0000 - Q1.5 Dummy
- 020-0001 - Q3 Dummy
- 020-0100 - Q3s Dummy
- 033-0001-B -Q6 Dummy
- 034-0000 - Q6s Dummy
- 010-0000 - Q10 Dummy
In the late 1970's and early 1980's, TNO and others developed the P-dummies, a series of child dummies that covers almost the complete child population up to 12 years. The P-series dummies are still test tools for the European regulation ECE-R44 and are also adopted by many other standards. In 1993 the International Child Dummy Working Group started with the development of the Q-series of child dummies as successor to the P-series. The 3 year old version, Q3, is the first dummy of the Q-series.
The Q3 differs considerably from the P-dummies. It is not only advanced in terms of its biomechanical and anthropometric basis, it is also developed to be used in both front and side impact testing, making it the first "multidirectional" (child) dummy. The instrumentation for Q3 is interchangeable within the dummy and between members of the Q-series and consists among others of the newly developed, compact load cells.
The development of the Q3 dummy is partly financed by CREST, the European program for improved child safety in cars.
Construction and Instrumentation
Head and Neck
The Q3 dummy has separate joints at the occipital condyles (OC) and atlas-axis (C1-C2). These joints represent the low-resistance, large range of motion joints that are also present in the human neck and largely affect the head kinematics. The rest of the neck is simulated by a flexible column, allowing bending, twist, and to a limited degree shear, compression and elongation.
The Q3 thorax includes a ribcage type structure, mounted onto a rigid thoracic spine box. The shape of the ribcage is derived from anthropometry data and analyses of X-rays of real children.
Shoulders and Arms
The shoulder of the Q3 incorporates a ball and socket joint to simulate the humerus-scapula joint, a scapula distributing load at back, an anatomically shaped clavicle which is connected to the sternum area of the ribcage by a flexible coupling and a flexible and a compressible column between the ball and socket joint and the thoracic spine box.
Abdomen and Lumbar Spine
The Q3 abdomen is designed as a one-piece deformable element, allowing considerable deformation, which takes place both as a result of bending of the complete dummy and as a result of contact loading. The lumbar spine is represented by a flexible column.
A lot of attention has been paid to designing anatomically shaped bony parts of the pelvis, using anthropometry data and X-rays of real children. The Q3 pelvis is not a rigid element but is made of a semi-rigid plastic skeletal structure, covered by flexible flesh and skin.
The compression characteristics of the upper legs are tuned to biomechanical data, which is important to assess the risk of submarining.
The Q3 is provided with a soft jacket, not simulating an anatomical structure but representing the combination of skin and clothing.
The shoulder and elbow joints use clickstops to position the upper arm and lower arm in the initial position. Click-stops are also used in the neck atlas-axis joint and occipital axis joint. The initial position of head and neck is therefore defined. The hips and lower legs are frictionless joints which do not need pre-test adjustment. The neck and lumbar spine should be certified after every 10 tests. A part 572 and a head form are required for both components. If the dummy is to be used in frontal tests, a full body impact with a 3.8 kg impactor is required. If the dummy is to be used in a side impact, the 3.8 kg impactor is used to load the side of the ribcage. A simple compression test is required for the abdomen (every 10 tests). Certification of the Q3 and components is described in the Q3 user's manual.
For testing according to ECE-R44 a tri-axial accelerometer is required. However, the Q3 allows many more measurements to be performed:
Ax, Ay, Az linear accelerations
Wx, Wy, Wz angular accelerations (optional)
|Upper Neck||Six-Axis Upper Neck Load Cell - Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz|
|Lower Neck||Six-Axis Lower Neck Load Cell - Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz|
|Thoracic Spine||Ax, Ay, Az linear accelerations|
Dx or Dy deflections
Ax and/or Ay linear accelerations (optional)
|Lower Lumbar Spine||Six-Axis Lumbar Load Cell -Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz|
Ax Az linear accelerations
Uniaxial Pubic Load Cell Fy (Q3s)
- Test Equipment Matrix for the Q0 Dummy
- Test Equipment Matrix for the Q1 Dummy
- Test Equipment Matrix for the Q1.5 Dummy
- Test Equipment Matrix for the Q3 Dummy
- Test Equipment Matrix for the Q3s Dummy
- Test Equipment Matrix for the Q6 Dummy
- Test Equipment Matrix for the Q10 Dummy coming soon...
Head Drop Test
Load Cell Structural Replacement
Head Positioning Bracket (EU Version)
Head positioning Bracket (USA Version)
Q-Dummy Headform Assembly
Thorax Impact Fixture
Q1, Q1.5 Thorax Impact Ceritifcation Probe
Q3 Thorax Impact Certification Probe
Q6 Thorax Impact Certification Probe
Teflon Sheets 2mm thick, 760 x 560 mm
Abdomen Test Rig
Q1, Q1.5 Abdomen Support
Q3 Abdomen Support
Q6 Abdomen Support
Q10 Development Update
Q10 / EPOCh Project
Currently the EPOCh project team consists of:
- Kees Waagmeester and Mark Burleigh, FTSS Europe
- Marianne Hynd, TRL United Kingdom (project coordinator)
- Alejandro Longton, IDIADA, Spain
- Erik Salters, DOREL, The Netherlands
- Barbara Girard, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Some features of the new dummy will include:
- Frontal and side impact application
- 10.5 yrs old 50th percentile anthropometry
- Dummy design in line with current Q dummies
- Frontal Impact application provision for up to 52 channels with additional channels for side impact use are being considered
- In-Dummy DAS ready!
- Omni directional neck design based on Q3s development experience
- Human like shoulder and clavicle shape
- WorldSID based pelvis design with human like bone shape
- Crash Test Dummies
- Frontal Impact
- Side Impact
- Rear Impact
- Aerospace & Military
- Test Equipment
- Specialty Products
- Engineer to Order
- iCrash Technology
- OccuForm Hard Shell
- FMH Positioning Tool
- H-Point Machine
- Virtual Models