Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Hybrid III 50th Male

Available Product Lines

  • Denton - FAA-H3-M001 (ATD Assembly)

Overview

The FAA Test Dummy is a modification of the Hybrid III 50th percentile male automotive crash test dummy which was developed by General Motors for use inevaluating automobile interior restraint systems with regard to frontal impact injury potential.  The FAA dummy modifications are made in the lower torso and in the legs to equip the dummy to be used in testing per Federal Aviation Administration regulations for emergency landing dynamic conditions. These tests are mandated in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Aeronautics and Space: 14CFR Parts 23.562, 25.562, 27.562, and 29.562. In order these parts apply to normal and transport category aircraft and normal and transport category rotorcraft.
 
The FAA dummy is modified to give it an erect seated posture, replacing the “driver slouch” of the automotive dummy.  Provision is made for a transducer to measure spinal column loading as required by aviation regulations.

Anthropometry

The FAA test dummy is a 50th percentile dummy based on the height and weight of the US adult male population.  The dummy design incorporates the ranges of motion, centers of gravity and body segment weights defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers' anthropometric studies to simulate those of human subjects.  Weight and seated height measurements are modified slightly in the FAA dummy.

Use

Per the FAA regulations, the dummy is placed in an aircraft seat in a fuselage section and belted in.  The fuselage is swung and dropped to simulate dynamic landing condition crash loads.  The dummy measures the HIC(head injury criteria), vertical loading on the lumbar spine and axial loads to the femurs.  Load cells in the seatbelts external to the dummy measure the reaction loads.  Transducers are listed in the instrumentation section. Results of the tests are used to certify aircraft crashworthiness allowing production and sale.

Dummy Design

The FAA dummy was designed as a modern replacement for the Hybrid II automotive dummy which has been specified for FAA testing.  In order to make the dummy comparable it was essentially made from a Hybrid III dummy. Non-Hybrid III parts included a Hybrid II chest jacket (modified), abdomen and upper legs.  The lumbar was changed to a Hybrid II cylinder mounted on a bracket for a lumbar force gage.  These changes give the dummy a Hybrid II weight distribution and the capability of passing a Hybrid II torso flexion test-not possible for a Hybrid III.  The dummies have a seated posture and are of modular construction so that dummy body segments may be easily replaced.  Transducer replacements are provided so that the dummy may be assembled without the load cells in place.

Construction

The head consists of a one-piece anthropomorphic aluminum skull and one-piece aluminum cap, each covered by vinyl skin.  The parts separate to allow access for instrumentation. 
 
A Hybrid III automotive neck is used.  It is a rubber and aluminum segmented molding, having anthropomorphic angle versus moment response in dynamic flexion (forward bending) and extension (rearward bending).  A cable through the axis of the neck limits stretching, controls response and increases durability.  The neck attaches to the head through an aluminum nodding joint, rubber nodding blocks, and a stainless steel condyle pin.  It attaches to the upper torso using automotive dummy two-piece adjustable aluminum neck brackets.
 
The upper torso is basically of Hybrid III automotive construction.  It has a welded steel spine box containing an adapter to hold accelerometers and a chest deflection transducer.  The ribs are fabricated of spring steel with composite damping material bonded on to absorb energy.  The shoulders are Hybrid III two-piece aluminum castings.  Shoulder yokes for attachment of the arms are high-tensile steel.  The dummy uses  a modified Hybrid II chest jacket made from vinyl skin over urethane foam flesh. It has a diaphragm to hold the abdomen and is modified with a Velcro-closed slot to accommodate the chest deflection transducer. 
 
The lumbar spine is a rubber cylinder with steel plates bonded to each end.  It connects to the spine box and to the pelvis through an adapter assembly and ballast which can mount a 6-axis force and moment transducer.
 
The pelvis consists of vinyl skin and urethane foam molded in the seated position over a machined aluminum casting.  Cast femurs with femur balls working in concave sockets are attached to the assembly to simulate the hips and mount the upper legs. 
 
The dummy uses Hybrid III automotive legs with the exception of the upper leg bones which are Hybrid II.  These bones have ballast cups filled with low melting point alloy, which is heavier than the steel ballast rings of the Hybrid III upper legs.  The legs are steel bones covered by vinyl skin and urethane foam which may be removed from the upper legs, knees and lower legs.  The knees are vinyl skin and urethane foam over rubber inserts mounted on aluminum knee caps.  The dummy has ball joint ankles. The feet are solid vinyl over steel bones.
 
The arms are 50th male automotive dummy arms having steel bones with vinyl skin over urethane foam.  The hands are solid vinyl over steel bones. 

Calibration

The following measurements are performed on each dummy:
  • Weight and center of gravity of each dummy body segment
  • Total dummy weight
  • External dimensions
  • Head drop
  • Neck pendulum flexion and extension
  • Thorax impact
  • Hip range of motion
  • Abdominal compression
  • Torso flexion
  • Knee impact, left and right
  • Knee shear test, left and right
  • Foot compression, left and right

Product Verification

Humanetics manufacturing and inspection procedures result in high quality machined and molded parts.  Procedures include certification of materials, verification of dimensions, and inspection of overall appearance of finished components.

Technical Specifications

Instrumentation

Location Description Channels
Head (3) IE-116 (7264C-2000) - Accelerometer CG: Ax, Ay, Az
Neck IF-205: 6 Axis Upper Neck Load Cell Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz
Upper Torso (3) IE-116 (7264C-2000) - Accelerometer
Ax, Ay, Az
Lower Torso
(3) IE-116 (7264C-2000) - Accelerometer 
IF-453: 6 Axis Lumbar Load Cell
Ax, Ay, Az
Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz
Legs IF-604: Uniaxial Femur Load Cell - per leg Fz
 

Test Equipment

Weights

Component lb. kg
Upper Torso 55.0 24.9
Lower Torso 33.6 15.2
Arms 19.4 8.8
Upper Legs 33.4 15.1
Lower Legs 25.3 11.5
     
Total Weight
166.7 
75.6
Specified Weight 164 +/- 3  

External Dimensions

Measurement  Inches cm
Head Circumference  23.5 59.7
Head Width  6.1 15.5
Head Length 8.0 20.3
Sitting Height 35.7 90.7
Shoulder / Elbow Length 13.3 33.8
Back of Elbow to Wrist Pivot 11.7 29.7
Buttock / Knee Length 23.3 59.2
Knee Pivot Height 19.5 49.5