Aerospace & Military

About Aerospace and Military Dummies

Aerospace and military dummies cover a range of applications: civilian aircraft testing, fixed wing and rotary; military parachutes; aircraft with crew ejection seat systems; and ballistic impact counter-measures. They are tools for the equipment developer to use to insure the safe, effective use of their applicable products.

Why we test Aerospace and Military Dummies

Powered flight lead to the development of the parachute for crew escape in case of an anticipated aircraft crash. High speed jet aircraft fly too fast for a crew member to climb out and jump off leading to the development of ejection seats. The desire to provide crash impact safety in commercial aircraft similar to automotive safety required civilian aircraft testing. Requirements for effectiveness of military programs lead to the development of live-fire testing to determine the effects of the ballistic impacts and countermeasures against them.

History of Aerospace and Military Dummies

Parachutes and harnesses were tested using rope dummies in 1919 and 1920 at Roswell, New Mexico. Modernized versions in current use were developed by Alderson Research Laboratories and Humanetics, Inc from the 1950’s to the 1970’s.
 
The Ted Smith Company used steel links and sandbags for ejection seat testing in 1944. Sierra Engineering developed Sierra Sam in 1949 on an Air Force contract. It had more human like features and offered helmet and oxygen mask evaluation.
 
Alderson Research developed space suit testing dummies for the Apollo program
 
Ejection seat testing requirements lead to the development of the Grumman Alderson Research Dummy (GARD) by Alderson and Arrone, of Grumman and CG dummies by Alderson at Humanetics in the 1960’s through the 1990’s. These rugged dummies measured the dummy whole body motions throughout the ejection sequence and sent data by telemetry to a ground station.
 
Aerospace dummies, based upon automotive dummy designs, with added instrumentation capabilities, body segment acceleration, force and moment transducers, were developed by Alderson at Humanetics in the 1970’s and 80’s, with further advances at Humanetics from 1991 onward. They followed civilian and military sizes and weights.
 
In parallel with this effort the USAF at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio developed the limb restraint evaluator (LRE) followed by the Advanced Dynamic Anthropomorphic Manikins (ADAM) the 1980’s. In addition to acceleration, force and moment transducers, the ADAM dummies read out joint positions during ejection for evaluation of dangerous limb flail during ejection. Their mechanical components were unique and wonderfully complex. They were based upon internally generated anthropometric studies.
 
In 1993 the Joint Primary Aircraft Training dummies, JPATS, were developed by Humanetics to comply with the sizes and weights of current military pilots. This resulted from the JPATS program for a universal military trainer to accommodate small females, lightest occupant in service (LOIS), to large males, large anthropomorphic research dummy (LARD). These were based upon automotive dummy mechanical designs.
 
In the late 1990’s and early Y2K European agencies sponsored the creation of 50th and 95th percentile HeliSAFE dummies to test safety measures in the unique helicopter (rotorcraft) cockpit environment.
Starting in 1988 the Federal Aviation Administration, FAA, mandated the testing of civilian fixed-wing and rotorcraft in emergency landing dynamic conditions. Originally a Hybrid II automotive dummy was used and in 2000 an FAA dummy, a modified combination of Hybrid II and Hybrid III parts was allowed for testing. The Hybrid III parts improved biofidelity in the head and neck.
 
Live Fire dummies were developed in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s by Humanetics. They were used to measure the effects of ballistic fragment penetration of the body. This work was encouraged by programs in the military to evaluate the effectiveness of weapons and their countermeasures. 

Aerospace and Military Dummies in the US Code of Federal Regulations

The Hybrid II frontal impact dummy and the FAA dummy are mandated in the U.S. Federal Code of Regulations Title 14 Aeronautics and Space in the following sections: 23.562, 25.562, 27.562 and 29.562, “Emergency Landing Dynamic Conditions” for normal and transport category fixed wing and normal and transport category rotorcraft.

Future Aerospace and Military Dummies

Future plans for these dummies include CAE models and modifications as requested by the various civilian and service organizations that use them.

Aerospace and Military Dummy Review

These dummies have been developed based on the requests of the testing communities that use them. They give the civilian aircraft and military aircraft and equipment manufacturer the ability to test the designs of their safety equipment to protect users to the highest level of current practice.